A hernia is a medical condition that occurs when an internal organ or tissue protrudes through a weak spot in the surrounding muscle or connective tissue. This can happen in various body parts but occurs most commonly in the abdomen or groin. This article describes in detail the causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and latest treatment options for the effective management of hernia.

Key Takeaways

  • A hernia occurs when an internal organ pushes through a weak spot in the muscle or tissue surrounding it.
  • Common types of hernias include inguinal, femoral, umbilical, and hiatal hernias.
  • Symptoms of a hernia can range from a visible bulge to pain and discomfort, particularly when straining or lifting.
  • Diagnosis typically involves a physical examination and imaging tests such as ultrasound or CT scans.
  • Treatment options vary from watchful waiting to surgical interventions, depending on the severity and type of hernia.

What is a Hernia?

Hernia occurs when internal organs start bulging through a weakened muscle or tissue typically in the abdomen or groin. This condition causes the organ or tissue to protrude through the surrounding muscle or connective tissue opening, causing a localized bulge. Hernias can create pain and discomfort for the person and require timely medical attention to prevent complications.

Types of Hernias

The most common types and location for hernias are:

  • Hiatus Hernia: Above the abdomen via the diaphragm.
  • Inguinal Hernia: In the Groin region via lower abdominal wall.
  • Femoral Hernia: In the Groin region or upper thigh. It is more common in females.
  • Epigastric Hernia: Between Umbilicus and the rib cage region.
  • Umbilical Hernia: In the Umbilical or Navel region.
  • Incisional Hernia: At a previous incision or scar site.

Causes of Hernia:

  • Genetics: Genetic predisposition plays a significant role in the development of hernias. Some individuals are genetically more likely to develop a hernia. They are born with a weakness in their muscles or connective tissue, making them more susceptible to hernias. Some individuals form poor-quality collagen tissue, resulting in tissue weakness, and making them susceptible to hernia development.


  • Congenital Hernias: Some individuals are born with umbilical or inguinal hernias. This happens due to the failure of the closure of specific membranes, resulting in the formation of a hernia. When these membranes fail to fuse or close, it causes protrusion of underlying organs and this condition is known as congenital hernia or hernia present since birth.


  • Lifestyle and Physical Activity: Certain lifestyle choices and physical activities can increase the risk of developing a hernia. These activities can cause repetitive stress injuries. Familiar sources of belly pressure include:
    • Long-term constipation
    • Chronic coughing or sneezing
    • Straining during bowel movements or urination
    • Lifting heavy items
    • Physical exertion
    • Excessive smoking and alcohol


  • Medical Conditions: Various medical conditions can contribute to the formation of hernias. Being overweight or obese, having an enlarged prostate, or suffering from long-term constipation are all risk factors. Additionally, previous surgeries can weaken the muscle or fascia, making it easier for an organ or tissue to push through the barrier.


Book an Appointment




Symptoms of Hernia

Different types of hernias can present with different types of symptoms. Symptoms can also vary depending upon the size and complexity of hernia. However, some of the most common symptoms associated with hernia include:

  • Swelling or bulge in the affected area: The most common symptom of a hernia is a visible bulge that becomes more prominent while standing or during strenuous activities and disappears completely on lying down. This condition is known as Reducible Hernia. With time, the swelling becomes permanent and does not reduce on lying down. This condition is known as Irreducible Hernia.
  • Pain or discomfort associated with the swelling: As the hernia progresses with time, there is pain and discomfort associated with the swelling. You might experience a dragging type of sensation while standing.
  • Gastrointestinal symptoms: In cases of hiatal hernia, you might experience various types of gastric symptoms like heartburn or chest pain, weakness in the abdomen, nausea, sour or bitter taste in the mouth.
  • Constipation: In cases of ventral hernia like umbilical or incisional hernia. You might experience constipation when your intestines start getting obstructed due to hernia.

Complications of Untreated Hernia:

Not all hernias cause symptoms and different types of hernias may cause different symptoms. One telltale sign of a hernia is a visible lump or bulge that appears during certain activities or in certain physical positions and goes back in at other times. You may also feel pressure, a dull ache or pinching when the hernia comes out. It may come out when you’re straining, lifting, laughing or coughing.

Some of the common signs and symptoms of a hernia are pain, heaviness, and bulging in an area of the body, pain when bending over or lifting heavy objects, fever, chills, nausea, and vomiting. These symptoms can be debilitating but do not prevent you from living life to its full potential.

How a hernia is diagnosed?

  • Physical Examination: A hernia specialist can diagnose more than 98% of hernias with physical examination only. A detailed history and a proper examination can easily establish the diagnosis of hernia.
  • Imaging Tests: Sometimes, a physical exam cannot detect very small or occult hernias. Based on the symptoms and site of hernia, a hernia specialist can guide you to go for the following tests:
    • CT scan
    • MRI scan
    • Ultrasound
    • Endoscopy

These tests help in getting a better look at the hernia and understanding its severity.

Treatment Options for Hernia

  • Watchful Waiting: In some cases, when the hernia is very small and not causing any symptoms, then the surgeon might ask you to do Watchful Waiting. This involves checking at regular intervals and looking for any changes or development of complications.
  • Surgical Interventions: Advancements in surgical technology and techniques have revolutionized the management of hernia repair. Advanced imaging modalities and surgical planning software have enabled surgeons to personalize treatment approaches based on each patient’s unique anatomy and hernia characteristics. One of the most significant developments has been the widespread adoption of minimally invasive approaches, including laparoscopic and robotic-assisted surgeries. The three most common surgical techniques for the management of hernia are:
    • Open surgeries: This is the traditional method of performing hernia surgery and is performed in very few patients.
    • Laparoscopic surgeries: One of the most revolutionary technologies in which the surgery is carried out with the help of special cameras and instruments.
    • Robotic Surgeries: Robotic surgeries combine the precision of robotic surgery with the benefits of laparoscopic surgery.


How can you prevent a Hernia?

  • Maintain a Healthy Weight: Obesity and being overweight increase the risk of hernias, particularly abdominal hernias such as inguinal and umbilical hernias.
  • Avoid Heavy Lifting and Straining: Engaging in heavy lifting or straining activities can significantly strain the abdominal muscles and increase the risk of developing hernias.
  • Strengthen Abdominal Muscles: Incorporating exercises that target the core muscles, such as planks, crunches, and leg raises can help strengthen the abdominal muscles.
  • Quit Smoking: Smoking has been linked to an increased risk of hernias due to its harmful effects on tissue health and wound healing.
  • Manage Chronic Constipation & Cough: Chronic constipation and cough can strain the abdominal muscles and increase intra-abdominal pressure. This can lead to the development of hernia, particularly inguinal and umbilical hernia.
  • Maintain Good Posture: Poor posture can contribute to developing hernias by placing undue stress on the abdominal muscles.


Frequently Asked Questions

Q: What is the permanent cure for hernia?

A: Surgical repair is the only permanent cure for hernia. A hernia is a tear or defect in the muscles. The tear can only be repaired surgically and no medicines can cure a hernia.

Q: Can medicines cure hernia?

A: While non-surgical methods such as lifestyle modifications or medicines may provide symptomatic relief, they do not address the underlying defect in the abdominal wall. Hence, medicines can never cure hernia.

Q: What is the recovery time following surgery?

A: The recovery time depends upon the type of hernia repair and the complexity of hernia. In cases of laparoscopic hernia repair, the majority of the patients are discharged within 24 hours of surgery and can return to normal activities within 4 -5 days.

Q: Which is the best hernia surgery?

A: Determining the “best” hernia surgery depends on various factors, including the type and size of the hernia, its location, your overall health, and personal preferences. However laparoscopic hernia repair and robotic surgeries are the best options in terms of recovery.

Q: Should I get the surgery done if the hernia is not causing any symptoms?

A: To undergo surgery for a hernia that is not causing any symptoms depends on several factors, including the type of hernia, its size, location, and overall health. You must always contact a hernia specialist to assess your hernia and give his recommendations.

Q: Will I be able to go to the gym after hernia surgery?

A: You can return to the gym after hernia surgery, but it is essential to approach it gradually and follow the recommendations by the best hernia surgeon. Listen to your body, and prioritize proper form and technique.

Q: Will I be able to produce children after hernia surgery?

A: Hernia surgery should not impact fertility or the ability to produce children. Following surgery, it’s essential to follow your healthcare provider’s post-operative instructions and allow adequate time for recovery before attempting to conceive.

Book an Appointment

By Dr .Kapil Agrawal

Dr. Kapil Agrawal holds 22+ years of rich experience in General Laparoscopic Surgeries (including Gallbladder Stone, appendix removal, hernia surgery, piles, lipoma, circumcision and fissure surgeries) and Bariatric Surgeries. He is a Senior Consultant with the Apollo Group of Hospitals in Delhi. Dr. Kapil has completed over 7000 Laparoscopic surgeries for all National and International Patients. He was associated with North Middlesex University Hospital, Edmonton, UK, and the Aintree University Hospital, Liverpool. He was honored with an MRCS (Member of the Royal College of Surgeons, London, UK) in 2007 in England. He has established a super specialty consultation center, 'Habilite Clinics,' in Delhi, intending to minimize the hospital's stressful experience and provide a warm and compassionate environment to his patients. The clinics offer a holistic program for the management of obesity and various advanced laparoscopic and laser surgeries to manage multiple ailments.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *